Protein is an essential component of every cell in the body. Skin, hair, nails, hormones, bone, muscle, cartilage, and blood are all made of protein. There are 20 different amino acids that make up the thousands of different proteins in the human body. Of those 9 are considered essential amino acids because they can not made by the body, but must be obtained through diet. These include: soleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. 


The liver and kidney are two primary sites to breakdown both oral and injectable vitamins and minerals. When taken orally, these minerals are broken down in the stomach and much is lost to enzyme activity leaving a significantly lower amount to be absorbed and utilized by the body. Injections preserve the amount of amino acid that can be used and increase overall results.


There are several ways of combining amino acids to achieve different results. Read more about each amino acid below. Take a special note that not all blended amino are acids the same. Each compounding pharmacy combines different amino acids in different amounts. One reason for this difference is when one amino acid is increased the osmolarity of the compound changes. That is important because doing so makes products too strong to be injected and other combinations don’t allow for it to last beyond a few days.


Over use can cause muscle pain or cramping. In general there are little side effects.


L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino meaning our bodies produce it. Arginine can be obtained from food such as whole wheat, seeds, nuts, red meat, fish and dairy.

The addition of Arginine to the diet of athletes and bodybuilders is often beneficial in three ways: 

  • Muscle growth L-Arginine is required for protein synthesis. When muscles increase in size, L-Arginine signals muscle cells to release growth hormone and aids in fat metabolism. The result is increased muscle tone and overall lean muscle mass. The end result is improved overall fitness and strength.
  • Vasodilation and Endurance L-Arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide and when released blood vessels expand by relaxing the muscles confined in its walls. This helps to lower total blood pressure and increase blood flow to muscles during a workout. The increased blood flow sends more oxygen and nutrients to muscles thereby reducing muscle fatigue, increase muscle recovery, limit muscle damage resulting in overall increase in performance.
  • Immune System L-Arginine helps to boost your own immune system by reducing free radicals produced by physical and mental stress. The increase in a more effective immune system helps reduce illness and optimizing recovery.


L-carnitine is best known as a fat-burner. Research has been mixed but its role in the body would support the claim. Carnitine brings fatty acids into the mitochondria of cells for conversion to energy. While this may be a bit contentious, studies do support its use for health, brain function and disease prevention. Supplementing with Carnitine may also benefit those with lower levels, such as older adults, vegans and vegetarians.

L-carnitine’s role in fitness and bodybuilding is subtle and could take several days to weeks to show benefit in this capacity. Overall, Carnitine can be used to supplement a weight loss program as well as help with diabetes and enhance brain function.


Studies suggest even with short term use Taurine may support better physical function, lower the cardiovascular risks that can be present after exercising, and improve issues associated with heart failure. Taurine may accomplish this by reducing inflammation and lowering blood pressure.

Although more studies must be conducted to confirm these benefits, the research already conducted is promising for anyone concerned with cardiac health or suffering from heart disease. Taurine may be beneficial in reducing triglycerides, prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance, regulate glucose metabolism, lower cholesterol, and reduce blood pressure. It may also improve performance of athletes. Scientists found strong evidence that a combination of taurine and caffeine may improve mood and possibly boost cognitive performance. Taurine has also shown to hasten degeneration of the cells of they eye and preserve vision for a longer period of time.


Health benefits of lysine and lysine supplements include improving cold sores, reducing blood pressure and preventing the symptoms of lysine deficiency. Additionally, Lysine is helpful in body with:

  • Absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc
  • Promoting collagen growth
  • Helping produce enzymes, antibodies, and hormones supporting the immune system
  • As it pertains to cold sores it has shown to decrease Arginine which is thought to be used by HSV
  • Lysine has been helpful in the reduction of anxiety
  • Improve conditions requiring Calcium absorption such as osteoporosis
  • Building muscle in bodybuilders
  • Boosting athletic recovery from intense workouts


Proline is an amino acid needed for the production of collagen and cartilage and may help support healthy joints and a healthy musculoskeletal system. Proline, along with the amino acid lysine and Vitamin C, is essential for the formation of healthy collagen and cartilage. It maintains the flexibility of both muscles and joints, and helps reduce sagging and wrinkling that accompany UV exposure and normal aging of the skin.


N-Acetyl Cysteine is a precursor of L-Cysteine and is more stable. While L-Cysteine is readily found in the diet – mostly from lean meat sources, NAC is not present in the diet and must be obtained via dietary supplementation.

N-Acetyl Cysteine is also known as NAC and Acetylcysteine. As an L-Cysteine derivative, NAC is more water soluble, and therefore more bioavailable than regular L-Cysteine. Some studies show that NAC may be a powerful antioxidant. Its role to survey the body for and neutralize any harmful free radicals that can cause oxidative damage to muscle tissue, bodily organs, and DNA. As an antioxidant, it may reduce oxidative stress, thereby preventing the onset of some cancers and possibly slowing the aging process. NAC may also boost the immune system function by acting as a glutathione precursor.


Ornithine reduces ammonia concentrations in the blood and concomitantly increase urea.  Reducttion in self-reported fatigue have been noted in persons with hepatic encephalopathy and in persons subject to a hangover (the process of getting drunk off alcohol will increase serum ammonia) when ornithine is taken before drinking. 

Ornithine looks promising for reducing ammonia concentrations in the blood and thus enhancing performance of prolonged exercise (45 minutes or more) which is in part due to it being elevated in the blood for a few hours after ingestion despite exercise.


Citrulline is an amino acid with several health benefits. It also appears to be safe and there are currently no known side effects. This supplement may promote healthier blood vessels and lower blood pressure, especially in people with heart conditions or high blood pressure.

For weight training, Citrulline malate has been studied the most. These studies have shown potential benefits of dilation of blood vessels and thus increase of oxygen to muscle. Intuitively, increases in weight lifting performance, decrease in muscle fatigue and improvement in endurance is expected. A dose of 8 grams may reduce fatigue and improve performance in the gym. Many foods can be found with levels of Citrulline with watermelon having the highest.


L- glutamine can minimize the breakdown of muscle and improve protein metabolism. It is the most common amino acid found in skeletal muscle with an average of over 60%. It is one of the primary transporter of nitrogen into muscle because it is made of about 20% nitrogen.

With intense workouts and training, glutamine stores are depleted and decrease overall strength, stamina and recovery. Experts estimate that it takes 5-6 days for Glutamine levels to return to normal. Glutamine as with other essential amino acids has in important role in protein synthesis and supplementing can improve muscle growth and protein metabolism. Glutamine is anti-catabolic and helps prevent the breakdown of muscle when you trying to get rid of fat. Intense exercise and training deplete stores of glutamine therefore like bodybuilders become more susceptible to illness. Ensuring supplementation with glutamine helps gain more muscle but more importantly it help maintain levels in the body.

Most studies show there are little to no side effects from Glutamine supplementation. Excessive supplementation can lead to stomach upset. Glutamine supplementation is not only important for bodybuilders and those who have periods of intense exercise but it is also important of intestinal health

10 to 15 g a day taken orally is about the maximum for benefits of Glutamine for bodybuilders. Creatine is often used in concert with Glutamine as Glutamine helps to prevent dehydration that decreases creatine effectiveness. Research has shown a twice-three times daily dosing is most effective; with breakfast, within 2-3 hours post-workout and at bedtime

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